Research Article

Trilateral relations among China, Nepal and India: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects


  • Barack Lujia Bao Researcher and Faculty Fellow, Department of Foreign Studies, Xianda College of Economics and Humanities of Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, China


Through multiple cases, comparative analysis, and empirical analysis, the purpose of this essay attempts to examine the triangular interaction among China, India and Nepal from the geopolitical and geoeconomic perspectives. It can be observed that the progress over intensive cultural exchanges among China, Nepal and India has been a little bit more noticeable and more substantive than interstate economic engagement. The comparison between the China-initiating Belt and Road Initiative and India’s neighbourhood policy shows that both major economies tend to be strategically vying for constructive partnership in South Asia. Furthermore, Nepal’s proposal of trans-Himalaya connectivity provides a crucial, intermediary trade alternative among these three economies in promotions of mutual economic growth and prosperity. This essay chiefly argues that both Nepal and China, as the two chief emerging powers in Asia, are encouraged to play a much more proactive role in fostering trilateral connectivity, whilst India as a member of BRICS should revamp its foreign policy considerations to fully utilise India’s neighbourhood policy and meanwhile acquaint itself with China’s Belt and Road Initiative to facilitate regional growth at an interstate level that can share beneficial trilateral interests. This essay unveils a more accurate, comprehensive scenario of BRI-generating linchpin of triangular China-Nepal-India ties that is heterogeneous to the neoliberal system.

Article information


Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies

Volume (Issue)

3 (7)





How to Cite

Bao, B. L. (2021). Trilateral relations among China, Nepal and India: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, 3(7), 05–14.



Belt & Road Initiative; China-Nepal-India Trilateral Relations; Neighbourhood Policy; Transnational Connectivity; Regional Challenges and Prospects